Sniper , Sniping , Philosophy , Rifle ...
| ||In the animal kingdom, creatures adapt to their environment. Permutations of organisms arise to serve distinct and specific purposes. So it is, in the firearms world as well. Differing applications call for specialized firearms. A derringer might be great for the purse, but for precision shots at great distances, we enter the realm of the sniper rifle. This term is thrown around in the media as loosely as “high powered rifle”, but it is seldom fully understood by those reporting.|
| ||The true sniper rifle is a highly tuned, accurate, long range firearm, but in and of itself, it is just a static tool, albeit a very precise one. The world of the sniper is very complicated. Fluctuating variables must be taken into account: windspeed, trajectory, elevation, bullet grain, breath control, trigger squeeze and camouflage, to name a few. In military and law enforcement circles, sniping has evolved into a very specialized science.|
| Why is it called “sniping” in the first place? The term refers actually to a bird, the snipe, which was exceedingly difficult to hunt, find and shoot. Only a select few hunters even bothered with it, mostly for the bragging rights of saying they got one. The first use of the word “sniper” is credited to the original colonial American snipe hunters who outfitted their muskets with a rare and new invention from the well known statesman, inventor, and constant tinkerer Benjamin Franklin, who created an early rifle scope that consisted of two convex lenses held inside a long tube of tightly wrapped and hard-shrunk pigskin. To create the first reticle, Franklin burned a crosshairs into the glass using acid. It is said that the snipe hunters with their specialized muskets were so accurate that they were sought out by the colonists specifically to shoot British officers in field during the revolutionary war.|
|Sniping was not a widespread concept until World War I, when the Germans deployed hunting rifles with telescopic sights against the British. When the going gets tough, the tough get going. So the British took up Aldis, Winchester and Periscopic Prism Co. sights and tasked gunsmiths to affix them to regulation SMLE Mk III rifles, which previously had no scope mounts. Toward the end of the war, both the British and the Germans were deploying their sniper rifles with stiffer, heavier barrels that increased accuracy. |
Unlike range competitions, military use of a rifle dictates that the rifle must be rugged, because it will inevitably get knocked around on the battlefield. For this reason, military sniper rifles often sacrifice a little bit of accuracy for the sake of durability. For instance, typical WW II sniper rifles were nothing more than hand-picked standard issue infantry rifles which were known to shoot well, and were then outfitted with two to three power scopes and custom cheek rests. Sometimes the bolt handle would be bent downward so that it wouldn’t interfere with the scope when working the action, but that was about it. Snipers proved so useful in that war, however, that toward its end, all sides had specially trained soldiers with specially equipped rifles.
sniper rifles fall into two distinct categories: military and law enforcement. As mentioned earlier, military sniper rifles sacrifice some degree of accuracy in order to obtain very high degrees of sturdiness, reliability and repairability under the chaos that is the “fog of war”. You can have such a tricked-out, specialized and accurized rifle that Aries the Greek God of War would be proud, but if it breaks in combat, “you ain’t doin’ your platoon much good.” As an Army vet myself, I can tell you about a saying we used to have: K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid.) The less you give Murphy to work with, the less that can go wrong. In addition, the military sniper is often required to carry or drag his rifle and equipment for long distances, making weight an important variable not to be overlooked. Lastly, much like businesses, military platoons have an operating budget, which heavily influences the kind and quality of sniper rifle and scope that the platoon has to work with. The US Army has its own sniper school, and the guys generally chosen to attend it are either natural sharp shooters or old-school hunting types that for whatever reason happened to sign up for service. Often, these guys spent their youth roaming hills and wood lines on the deer stalk, or going after running rabbits and squirrels to put food on the family’s table. If they didn’t shoot, they didn’t eat. This latter ethos gave rise to the likes of legendary Vietnam sniper Carlos Hathcock.
|law enforcement snipers generally train for greater accuracy than their military counterparts, but at shorter ranges. There have been instances of police snipers actually shooting the gun out of the bad guy’s hand in hostage situations, there by ending the confrontation without anyone getting|
| hurt. Some of the earliest examples of need for police sniper rifles arose among the West German Polizei (police) after the PLO hostage tragedy at the 1972 Olympics in Munich. The H&K PSG1 is one example of the kind of rifle that was specifically designed to meet this need, as was the FN Special Police Rifle. |
inherently, one of the most fundamental elements of a sniper rifle is the scope. On a sniper rifle, the scope is long, telescopic and powerful, as opposed to the scopes found on assault rifles and submachine guns. The telescopic scope allows the sniper to see further and shoot much more accurately. The scope on a sniper rifle is generally greater than four power, but can go as high as 40 power. Two power means the image is two times closer through the scope. The lens is objective, and usually 40 – 50 mm in diameter, so it can let a lot of light in and through. In addition, some sniper scopes have specialized reticles to account for bullet drop and windage. Some even have illuminated reticles. There are night vision “Starlight” scopes as well, which became prevalent in the waning days of the Vietnam war. A Starlight scope can be used in conjunction with an infrared laser sight, which cannot be seen with the naked eye.
during WW I, when the concept of sniper rifles started gaining popularity, all rifles were bolt action. Today, however, the type of action is generally determined by the sniper’s intended purpose within his military organization. Bolt actions are cheaper to build, in general more reliable, and are easier to maintain, due to less moving parts. Semi-autos offer a greater volume of fire, and are better suited to engaging multiple targets. Regular Army and law enforcement outfits usually use bolt action in their sniper rifles. Semi-autos are used almost extensively by the Special Forces and Navy Seals. Barrels of sniper rifles are considerably longer than assault rifle barrels and hunting rifle barrels. It is not uncommon for a sniper to have a 24-30 inch barrel. This it by design, so that there is more rifling available to the bullet, since twisting stabilized a bullet’s flight. This is also to increase the amount of pressure that builds within the barrel while propelling the bullet down it. Sometimes, a tactical sniper rifle will have a fluted barrel. This is where grooves are carved into the barrel lengthwise. What this does is increase surface area and aid in cooling, all while decreasing weight.
the stocks of sniper rifles are considerably more adjustable than a normal rifle, since the more the sniper can get the gun to feel like a natural extension of his own body, the better his shot will be. It is for that reason that you sometimes see adjustable cheek welds and pads on sniper rifle stocks. Some sniper rifle stocks even have adjustable lengths and butt pads. Some tactical sniper rifle stocks even have thumb-holes. Most sniper rifles are designed to be fired from the prone position, and many will have some form of bipod attached. The steadier you can make the shooting platform, the more accurate the shot. In the interest of keeping the shot steady, many sniper rifles will feature stocks that do not touch the actual barrel. This is known in tactical jargon as “floating the barrel”. The reason this is done is that even vibrations too subtle for the shooter to notice can have considerable effect on bullet placement. The less contact the stock has with the barrel, the better. Going along with the stock, some sniper rifles will have a tactical sling on them. Sure, you can carry the rifle with the sling, but more importantly the sling itself serves as a stabilization tool, where the sniper will “lock” his arm into the sling so that it aids the stability of the rifle when standing, sitting or kneeling. You’ve likely seen guys do this at the range, or maybe in the movies. Legendary sniper Carlos Hathcock was said to have been very accurate locking into the sling with his arm while sitting “Indian style” with his knees up.When it comes to cartridge loads, the military prefers rifles chambers in 7.62mm (.30 inch), such as 7.62x51mm and 7.62x54mm, which shoot in the 800 – 1,000 meter range. Toward the later 1990’s and early 2000’s, a new type of sniper rifle came into existence: the .50 BMG. Previously, this big round had only been used in the .50 caliber Browning Machine Gun (hence BMG), which was almost exclusively vehicle mounted. When this round is used in a bolt-action or semi-auto sniper rifle, depending on the barrel, range was dramatically increased to 1,500 – 2000 meters. Other long reaching rounds include the .338 Lapua Magnum and the 14.5x114mm. The extended range offered by these rounds afforded the sniper further distance from his target, and such being, less reliance on fieldcraft.
fieldcraft is the catch-all category that refers to the sniper’s ability to use cover, concealment, and camouflage to blend into his surroundings, as well as tactical movement and wilderness survival. In some cases, there could be a sniper right in front of you, and you wouldn’t even know it. That would be one example of excellent fieldcraft.
one of the fieldcraft techniques that snipers rely on heavily is camouflage. There are certain elements that must be remembered when preparing tactical camouflage: movement, outline, color and pattern. The key in slipping undetected past humans and animals is outline and movement. A throwback to our lesser evolved ancestors, the movement issue is key. Without conscious thought, just as with the lower mammals, our eyes are tuned to immediately draw our attention to movement when trying to discern our surroundings. For that reason, military snipers practice movements such as low crawling very slowly, and moving very slowly and deliberately in general, while making use of shadows and backdrops. It is also best to break up the outline of something, so that it doesn’t look like its actual shape. Maybe you’ve seen the Bronco SUV’s favored by consummate hunter and outdoorsman / rocker Ted Nugent. The reason his Broncos are striped black and white is not to look like a zebra; it is actually to break up the outline of the truck and help it to blend in with the trees against the Michigan (where he lives) snow. The same impetus motivates snipers, who go a number of steps further to blend into their environment.
One technique employed by military snipers, and even some turkey hunters, is the ghillie suit. This term originated in the Highlands of Scotland, where a “ghillie” was a guy employed by a land owner to prevent poaching on his property, control predators, and generally monitor the health of the wildlife in the area. The ghillies wanted to blend in so that they could better catch the poachers. So they made suits out of jute, old rags, and straw, and then dyed the rag-suit the same colors as the foliage in the area. The idea worked so well that soon the ghillies became known among the nearby townsfolk as masters of disguise. The Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment that was formed by the British Army during the Boer Wars, was the first known unit to wear ghillie suits into battle. So adept at camouflage, the Lovat Scouts eventually metamorphosed into Britain’s first sniper unit in 1916. The guillie suit is still used by snipers today, and is considered one of the best forms of camouflage in existence. Generally, a sniper will make his own ghillie suit out of an old pair of BDU’s (Battle Dress Uniforms), some netting, “Shoe Goo” shoe repair adhesive (curiously enough, sought after for ghillie suits because of it’s ability to stretch instead of break), and old burlap fabric and jute cord. The sniper will sometimes add padding, vents, and extra pockets to his ghillie suit, to make his low crawl more comfortable. Depending on the environment, snipers will insert bunches of plants, dirt and mud native to the region right into the netting of the suit.
In sniper think, the Holy Grail is the perfect shot, and a sniper is always pursuing that. The name of the game in sniper circles is Accuracy. The easiest way to explain the accuracy of a sniper rifle is to think of drawing a perfect circle around a group of shot holes in a target. Then measure the diameter of the circle. To determine how accurate a sniper rifle is, it is placed in a rest and fired in groups of five or three rounds. Then, the circles are measured and an average is taken. There is a thin line between good and poor, and that line is measured in a 1 MOA (Minute Of Angle) group. 1 MOA is a measure of the angle formed when the muzzle is at the top and the group of rounds is at the base. A 1 MOA grouping translates to a one inch group at 100 yards, a two inch group at 200 yards, and so on. So if you read that rifle brand and model X shoots at 1MOA, it means that that rifle is capable of shooting a group of five rounds within a three inch circle at 300 yards. If this sounds impressive, consider that, in many modern sniper rifles, it is possible to shoot 0.5 MOA or even 0.3 MOA, which means one inch groups at 300 yards, or 2 inch groups at 600 yards.
Top 10 Snipers in History
| Thomas Plunkett|
Was an Irish soldier in the British 95th Rifles. What makes him on of the greats is that he shot a very impressive French general, Auguste-Marie-François Colbert.
During the battle at Cacabelos during Monroes retreat in 1809, Plunkett, using a Baker Rifle, shot the French general at a range of about 600 meters. Giving the incredible inaccuracy of rifles in the early 19th century, this was either a very impressive feat, or one hell of a fluke. Well Plunkett not wanting his army buddies to think he was a bit lucky decided to take the shot again before returning to his line. So he reloaded his gun and took aim once again this time at the trumpet major who had come to the generals aid. When this shot also hit its intended target, proving thatPlunkett is just one badass marksman, he looked back to his line to see the impressed faces of the others in the 95th Rifles.
Just for comparison the British soldiers were all armed with ‘Brown Bess muskets’ and trained to shoot into a body of men at 50 meters. Plunkett did 12 times that distance. Twice.
The date was May 9th 1864, when Sgt Grace, a Confederate sniper, achieved what was considered to be an incredible shot at the time, and what is definitely the most ironic demise of a target in history. It was duringthe battle of Spotsylvania when Grace took aim with his British Whitworth Rifle. His target was General John Sedgwick (pictured above) and the distance was 1,000 yards. An extremely long distance for the time. During the beginning of the skirmish, the confederate sharpshooters were causing Sedgwick’s men to duck for cover. Sedgwick refused to duck and was quoted saying “What? Men dodging this way for single bullets? What will you do when they open fire along the whole line? I am ashamed of you. They couldn’t hit Elephants at this distance.” His men persisted in taking cover. He Repeated “They couldn’t hit elephants at this distance” Seconds Later Grace’s shot hits Sedgwick just under his left eye.
I swear you couldn’t write it. Sedgwick was the highest ranking Union casualty in the civil war and upon hearing his death Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant repeatedly asked “Is he really dead”.
Charles 'Chuck' Mawhinney
>>103 confirmed kills<<
Was an avid hunter as a kid and joined the Marines in 1967. He served in the U.S. Marine Corps during Vietnam and holds the record for number of confirmed kills for Marinesnipers , exceeding that of legendary Marine sniper Carlos Hathcock. In just 16 months he killed 103 enemies and another 216 kills were listed as probable’s by the military, only because it was too risky at the time to search the bodies for documents. When he left the Marines he told no-one of his of his role during the conflict and only a few fellow Marines knew of his assignments. It was nearly 20 years before somebody wrote a book detailing his amazing skills as a sniper. Mawhinney came out of anonymity because of this and became a lecturer in sniper schools. He was once quoted saying “it was the ultimate hunting trip: a man hunting another man who was hunting me. Don’t talk to me about hunting lions or elephants; they don’t fight back withrifles and scopes. I just loved it. I ate it up.”
A routinely deadly shot from distances between 300 – 800 yards, Mawhinney had confirmed kills of over 1000 yards, making him one ofthe greatest snipers of the Vietnam war.
A former corporal of the Canadian Forces, he holds the record for the longest confirmed sniper kill in history at 1.51 miles or 2,430 metres. That’s the length of about 26 football pitches.
This amazing feat occurred in 2002, when he was involved in Operation Anaconda. His Sniper Team consisted of 2 Corporals and 3 Master Corporals. When a three man Al-Qaeda weapons team moved into a mountainside position he took aim. Furlong was armed with a .50-caliber McMillan Brothers Tac-50 Rifle and loaded with A-MAX very low drag bullets. He fired and missed. His second shot hit the enemies knapsack on his back. He had already fired his third shot by the time the second hit, but now the enemy knew he was under attack. The airtime for each bullet was about 3 seconds due to the immense distance, enough time for an enemy to take cover. However the dumbfounded militant realised what was happening just in time to take the third shot in the chest.
>>242 Confirmed Kills<<
Zaytsev is probably the best known Sniper in history thanks to the movie ‘Enemy At The Gates’. It is a great film and I wish I could say it was all true. However the truth only goes as far asthe battle of Stalingrad. There was no Nazi Counter-Sniper Specialist in real life. Well not to the extent of the film. Here’s the truth. Zaytsev was born in Yeleninskoye and grew up in the Ural Mountains. His surname means ‘hare‘. Before Stalingrad, he served as a clerk in the Soviet Navy But after reading about the conflict in the city he volunteered for the front line. he served in the 1047th Rifle Regiment. Zaytsev ran a sniper school in the Metiz factory. The cadets hetrained were called Zaichata, meaning ‘Leverets’ (Baby Hares). This was the start of the sniper movement in the 62nd army. It is estimated that thesnipers he trained killed more than 3,000 enemy soldiers
Zaytsev himself made 242 confirmed kills between October 1942 and January 1943, but the real number is probably closer to 500. I know I said there was no counter-sniper, but there was Erwin Kónig. Was alleged to be a highly skilled Wehrmacht sniper. Zaytsev claimed in his memoirs that the duel took place over a period of three days in the ruins of Stalingrad. Details of what actually happened are sketchy, but by the end of the three day period Zaytsev had killed the sniper and claimed his scope to be his most prized trophy. For him to make this his most prized trophy means that this person he killed must have been almost as good as Zaytsev himself.
>>309 Confirmed Kills<<
In June 1941, Pavlichenko was 24 and Nazi Germany were invading the Soviet Union. She was among the first volunteers and asked to join the infantry. she was assigned to the Red Armies 25th infantry Division. From there she became one of 2000 female snipers of the soviet.
Her first 2 kills were made near Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt action rifle with a P.E. 4-power scope. The first action she saw was during the conflict in Odessa. She was there for 2 and a half months and notched 187 kills. When they were forced to relocate, she spent the next 8 months fighting in Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. There she recorded 257 kills and for this feat she was cited by the Southern Army Council. Pavlichenkos’ total confirmed kills during WW2 was 309. 36 of those were enemysnipers.
Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow
>>378 Confirmed kills , 300+ Captures<<
Three times awarded the military medal and twice seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with 378 German kills and capturing 300+ more. He was an Ojibwa warrior with the Canadians in battles like those at mount sorrel. As if killing nearly 400 Germans wasn’t enough, he was also awarded medals for running messages through very heavy enemy fire, for directing a crucial relief effort when his commanding officer was incapacitated and for running through enemy fire to get more ammo when his unit was running low.
Though a hero among his fellow soldier, he was virtually forgotten once he returned home to Canada. Regardless he was one of the most affective snipers of world war 1.
Adalbert F. Waldron
>>109 Confirmed Kills<<
He holds the record for the highest number of confirmed kills for any American sniper in history. However it is not just his impressive kill record that makes him one of the best, but also his incredible accuracy.
This excerpt from ‘Inside the Crosshairs: Snipers in Vietnam’ by Col. Michael Lee Lanning, describes just what I’m talking about:
“One afternoon he was riding along the Mekong River on a Tango boat when an enemy sniper on shore pecked away at the boat. While everyone else on board strained to find the antagonist, who was firing from the shoreline over 900 meters away, Sergeant Waldron took up his sniper rifle and picked off the Vietcong out of the top of a coconut tree with one shot (this from a moving platform). Such was the capability of our best sniper.” Nuff Said.
If there was a scale of difficulty for shots like these, it would be next to impossible to beat. well lets try to do that anyway.
Carlos Hathcock II
>>93 Confirmed Kills<<
Hathcock has one of the most impressive mission records of any sniper in the Marine corps. Lets forget about the dozens of shooting championships he won, during the Vietnam war he amassed 93 confirmed kills. The Vietnam army put a $30,000 bounty on his life for killing so many of their men. Rewards put on U.S. snipers by the NVA (North Vietnamese Army) typically amounted to….say $8.
It was Hathcock who fired the most famous shot in sniper history. He fired a round, over a very long distance, which went through the scope of an enemy sniper, hit him in the eye, and killed him. Hathcock and Roland Burke his spotter were stalking the enemy sniper, (which had already killed several Marines) which they believed was sent to kill him specifically. When Hathcock saw a flash of light reflecting off the enemies scope he fired at it in a split second pulling off one of the most precise shots in history. Hathcock reasoned that the only way that this was possible, would have been if both snipers were aiming at each others scopes at the same time, and he fired first. However, although the distance was never confirmed, Hathcock knew that because of the flight time, it would have been easy for both snipers to kill each other. The white feather was synonymous with Hathcock (He kept one in his hat) and he removed it only once for a mission. Keep in mind that he volunteered for this mission, but he had to crawl over 1500 yards of enemy territory to shoot an NVA commanding general. Information wasn’t sent until he was on-route. (He volunteered for a mission he knew nothing about) It took 4 days and 3 nights without sleep of inch-by-inch crawling. One enemy soldier almost stepped on him as he laid camouflaged in a meadow. At another point he was nearly bitten by a viper, he didn’t flinch. He finally got into position and waited for the general. When he arrived Hathcock was ready. He fired one round and hit the general through the chest killing him. The soldiers started a search for the sniper and Hathcock had to crawl back to avoid detection. They never caught him. Nerves of steel.
>>Nicknamed ‘The White Death’
705 confirmed kills (505 with rifle, 200 with submachine gun)<<
Was a Finnish soldier who, using an iron sighted bolt action rifle, amassed the highest recorded confirmed kills as a sniper in any war…ever!!
Häyhä was born in the municipality of Rautjärvi near the present-day border of Finland and Russia, and started his military service in 1925. His duties as a sniper began during the ‘winter war’ (1939-1940) between Russia and Finland. During the conflict Häyhä endured freezing temperatures up to -40 degrees Celsius. In less than 100 days he was credited with 505 confirmed kills, 542 if including unconfirmed kills, however the unofficial frontline figures from the battlefield places the number of sniper kills at over 800. Besides his sniper kills he was also credited with 200 from a Suomi KP/31 Submachine gun, topping off his total confirmed kills at 705.
How Häyhä did all this was amazing. He was basically on his own all day, in the snow, shooting Russians, for 3 months straight. Of course when the Russians caught wind that a shit load of soldiers were being killed, they thought ‘well this is war, there’s bound to be casualties’. But when the generals were told that it was one man with a rifle they decided to take a bit of action. first they sent in a counter-sniper. When his body was returned they decided to send in a team of counter-snipers. When they didn’t come back at all they sent in a whole goddamn battalion. They took casualties and couldn’t find him. Eventually they ordered an artillery strike, but to no avail. You see Häyhä was clever, and this was his neck of the woods. He dressed completely in white camouflage. He used a smaller rifle to suit his smaller frame (being 5ft3) increasing his accuracy. he used an iron sight to present the smallest possible target (a scoped sight would require the sniper to raise his head for sighting). He compacted the snow in front of the barrel, so as not to disturb it when he shot thus revealing his position. He also kept snow in his mouth so his breath did not condense and reveal where his was. Eventually however his was shot in the jaw by a stray bullet during combat on March 6 1940. He was picked up by his own soldiers who said half his head was missing. He didn’t die however and regained consciousness on the 13th, the day peace was declared.
Once again total kills…. 505 sniper + 200 submachine = 705 total Confirmed Kills…all in less that 100 days.
Famous Sniper Rifles
The M82 (also sometimes designated by the military as the M107)
|type || anti-material rifle|
| place of origin|| United States|
| in service||1989-present|
| used by|| |
|weight|| 14 kg|
|lenght|| 145 cm|
| barrel lenght|| 73.7 cm|
|cartridge||50 BMG (12.7x99mm NATO)|
|action||Recoil-operated, rotating bolt|
| muzzle velocity||853 m/s|
| feed system||10-round detachable box magazine|
CheyTac Intervention M-200
A rifle used in famous movie "Shooter"
| type || sniper rifle|
| place of origin|| United States|
|weight|| 14 kg|
|lenght|| 1346 mm|
| barrel lenght|| 737 mm|
|cartridge||.408 Chey Tac or .375 Chey Tac|
| effective range||2000+ m|
The Dragunov sniper rifle (formally Russian: Снайперская винтовка Драгунова, Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova (SVD)
| type ||sniper rifle|
| place of origin|| Soviet Union|
| used by|
|wars||Vietnam War, Soviet war in Afghanistan, Iraq War, Yugoslav Wars, Chechen Wars, 2008 South Ossetia War|
|manufacturer||Izhmash, Norinco, Zastava Arms|
|weight|| 4,30 kg|
|lenght|| 1,225 mm|
| barrel lenght|| 620 mm|
|action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
| muzzle velocity|| 830 m/s|
| effective range||Up to 800 m sight adjustments for point targets|
|maximum range||1,300 m with scope|
| feed system||10-round detachable box magazine|
|sights||PSO-1 telescopic sight and iron sights with an adjustable rear notch sight|
|type|| semi-automatic rifle|
| place of origin||Nazi-Germany|
| in service||1943-1945|
| used by||Nazi-Germany|
|wars|| World War II|
| designed ||1943|
| number built||402,713|
|weight|| 4,1 kg|
|lenght|| 1130 mm|
| barrel lenght|| 546 mm|
|cartridge||7.92x57 mm Mauser|
|action|| gas operated|
| muzzle velocity || 775 m/s|
| effectiv range|| 500 m , 800 m with scope|
| feed system || 10 round detachable box magazine|
|sights||iron sights , ZF 4 optical sight|
Mosin Nagant m91
|type|| bolt-action rifle|
| place of origin|| Soviet Union , Russian Empire|
| in service||1891-present|
| used by|| |
|wars|| Russo-Japanese War|
World War I
Russian Civil War
Chinese Civil War
World War II
Spanish Civil War
|designer||Captain Sergei Mosin, Léon Nagant|
|produced||1891 - 1965|
| number built||approx 37,000,000 (Russia/Soviet Union)|
|weight|| 4 kg|
|lenght|| 1,287 ..|
| barrel lenght|| 730 mm|
|muzzle velocity|| 1100 m/s|
|effective range|| 500 m , 750+ m (with optics)|
| feed system||5-round non-detachable magazine, loaded individually or with five-round stripper clips.|